Typical Immunization Schedule For The Babies First Year

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babyDuring your baby’s first year, the pediatrician’s office can begin to feel like a second home. It seems that even if your baby is perfectly healthy all the time, you still have to be there quite often for well visits. During these check-ups, parents are often told their babies will be receiving shots. Typically, pediatricians hand the parents some literature on the vaccines scheduled to be given at the beginning of the visit and send a nurse in at the end to administer them. This does not allow much time to go over the paperwork and obtain a good understanding of the shots or the diseases they’re meant to prevent. It also does not allow much room to mentally prepare for the baby’s inoculations and the cries that will surely follow.

In order to feel better prepared and to ensure you are on track with your baby’s shots, here is a typical immunization schedule for your baby’s first year.

* Birth – The first immunization is generally given at the time of birth, and this first shot contains the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis is a serious illness that affects the liver and can be fatal if contracted. This vaccine contains thimerosal, also known as mercury. Your baby will eventually need another dose at one or two months of age.

* Two Months – This well visit usually contains a high number of vaccines being administered. Sometimes, doctors will combine more than one vaccine into one shot in order to reduce the number of injections. At this age, you can expect your child to receive the second dose of the hepatitis B vaccine. Additionally, the first dose of the rotavirus vaccine will be administered. Rotavirus is an illness that most people refer to as a stomach flu that causes of severe diarrhea. While not usually fatal, rotavirus is more dangerous to infants and the elderly. Next, the first dose of the Hib to prevent haemophilus influenzae, a disease that typically affects children under the age of five that can cause meningitis, pneumonia and infections of the blood, bones and joints, is given. This injection contains trace amounts of formaldehyde. An initial dose of DTaP for Diphtheria and Tetanus is also administered. Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can be deadly, while tetanus is a bacterial disease that affects the nervous system. This vaccine contains aluminum hydroxide and thimerosal. IPV is given for Polio, a disease that can cause paralysis and even death. This vaccine also contains trace amounts of formaldehyde. Finally, an initial dose of PCV13 for pneumococcal will be given. Pneumococcal is known as the number one preventable cause of death in infants and children under five, according to the World Health Network. This disease can cause pneumonia, infection of the blood (bacteremia/sepsis), middle-ear infection (otitis media) and bacterial meningitis.

* Four Months – At four months, your baby will receive the second doses for all the first dose shots she was given at two months. These include rotavirus, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP), haemophilus influenza type B (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and polio.

* Six Months – Yet a third round of immunizations is given when your baby is six months old. Your child’s doctor will probably also suggest an annual flu shot. If you opt for her to receive the flu vaccine, it is often split into two shots because it is the first time the child is receiving it. You can usually request this shot in the thimerosal-free version, which has much less mercury in it than the regular vaccine. So again, your child will be receiving Hepatitis B, Rotavirus, DTaP, Hib, PCV13 and IPV.

* One Year – When your baby turns a year old, she will be due for the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella), Var (Varicella or chickenpox), PCV and Hib vaccines. Measles, mumps and rubella were once quite common childhood illnesses, and all three can lead to serious and potentially fatal complications. Chickenpox, also known as varicella, was also very common until fairly recently. While most recovered fully, this disease could occasionally lead to severe skin infections, scars, pneumonia, brain damage or death. The varicella vaccine contains aluminum.

Now that you have a brief overview of what vaccines you can expect to be given to your baby during her first year, you can prepare by doing further research into the vaccine, its ingredients and the disease it protects against. You can also write down any questions you have for your doctor before heading into the appointment. Don’t ever feel bad about asking questions or obtaining second opinions when you visit a medical professional; after all, your child’s health and wellbeing are at stake. Ultimately, your child’s well-being is in your hands, and obtaining objective information on your child’s health is one of the best things you can do as a parent.

Submitted by Kaitlyn Johnson of Newborn Care

Overweight Mothers ‘Give Birth To Babies With Clogged Arteries’

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pregnantFrom Your Health Journal…..A very good article from The Australian via The Times written by Chris Smyth entitled Overweight Mothers ‘Give Birth To Babies With Clogged Arteries’ – a well written and informative article I wanted to promote. We have discussed here recently about the obesity epidemic facing adults and children all over the world. We have posted articles from at least a dozen countries pointing to problems in their homeland about obesity. Obesity related illness is also on the rise – as many people are showing risk factors for cancer, heart disease, weak joints, type 2 diabetes, asthma, as well as low self-esteem. Sedentary lifestyles, increased usage of technology, poor diets, and lack of physical activity are all to blame. Now, new research suggests that the babies of overweight mothers are born with the first signs of heart disease. Scientist have discovered that the walls of the body’s main artery are already thickened in newborns whose mothers are obese or overweight, and the fatter the women the more their babies’ arteries appeared to be clogged. These are very important findings, and I suggest you read the full story (link provided below) to learn more.”

From the article…..

The babies of overweight mothers are born with the first signs of heart disease, Australian research suggests.

The walls of the body’s main artery are already thickened in newborns whose mothers are obese or overweight, and the fatter the women the more their babies’ arteries appeared to be clogged, scientists have found.

Experts cautioned that the study was too small to be certain, but suggested that overweight mothers were increasing their children’s risk of heart disease in later life.

Most women giving birth are now overweight or obese, and campaigners said the latest findings added urgency to efforts to reduce the weight of new mothers.

Australian scientists looked at 23 women whose body mass index ranged from normal to morbidly obese early in pregnancy, and when their babies were seven days old scanned the newborns’ abdominal aortas, the section of the artery running down to the belly.

The thickness of the innermost walls of the artery ranged from 0.65mm to 0.97mm and increased with the mother’s weight, irrespective of the size of the baby itself. There was a difference of 0.06mm between babies of overweight and normal weight mothers.

Michael Skilton and his team from the University of Sydney said that this hinted that arteries were already clogged up at birth.

“The earliest physical signs of atherosclerosis [clogging of the arteries] are present in the abdominal aorta, and aortic intima-media thickness is considered the best non-invasive measure of structural health of the vasculature in children; suggesting a putative mechanism by which maternal adiposity [fatness] may influence the risk of later cardiovascular disease in the offspring,” Dr Skilton and his team write in the journal Fetal and Neonatal Edition of Archives of Disease of Childhood.

Tam Fry of the National Obesity Forum said that the findings were worrying.

“Babies are starting to have a pretty rough existence before they’re born because of the weight of their mothers,” he said.

“The lesson we should get from this is we’ve got to be really much more focused on making sure women of child-bearing age from the earliest point, back in school, get the message that if they think of having babies they have to think of the responsibility to get themselves healthy before conceiving. There has got to be a lot of pressure on women to go into pregnancy at the right weight. There’s still this myth about eating for two, that you have to eat more.

To read the complete article…..Click here

Babies Of Obese Moms Show Lower Vitamin D Levels

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babyFrom Your Health Journal…..”An interesting article recently in the Chicago Tribune written by Jessica Tobacman entitled Babies Of Obese Moms Show Lower Vitamin D Levels. Recently, a new study found babies born to women who are obese at the start of pregnancy tend to have one-third less vitamin D than the infants of lean women. Vitamin D is very important to young babies as it helps build stronger bones. The study found that obese and lean pregnant moms had the same levels of Vitamin D, but the babies did not, as the babies born to lean mothers had higher levels of Vitamin D. This is a very well written and fascinating article, as it supports the fact that reducing obesity not only helps a person live healthier, but now, it helps their children. Please visit the Chicago Tribune web site (link provided below) to support Ms. Tobacman’s article.”

From the article…..

Babies born to women who are obese at the start of pregnancy tend to have one-third less vitamin D than the infants of lean women, according to a new study led by a Northwestern Medicine professor.

Vitamin D is important for children because it helps to build strong bones, doctors say.

Dr. Jami L. Josefson and her team measured the vitamin D levels of 61 pregnant women two to four weeks before giving birth at Prentice Women’s Hospital in Chicago. Before pregnancy, the women’s body-mass indexes ranged from obese to normal.

Just after birth, the umbilical cord blood was collected from the babies. For those with mothers who were obese, the blood contained lower levels of the vitamin.

The difference in babies’ vitamin D levels occurred despite the fact that the mothers had similar levels of the vitamin in their bodies before giving birth, said Josefson, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Northwestern and an attending physician at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago.

“We were surprised that obese and lean women had similar levels of vitamin D. It made the analysis and the results more scientifically interesting to look at because the moms’ levels were similar,” she said.

The different levels in the infants could be attributed to the way that the body treats vitamin D, Josefson said.

“It’s a very accepted finding in the literature that obese people sequester vitamin D in fat tissue, which (means) it is not as available for the body. Vitamin D is carried in fat cells,” Josefson said.

The study, titled “Maternal Obesity and Vitamin D Sufficiency Are Associated with Cord Blood Vitamin D Insufficiency,” was published last month in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. The research is part of a larger project investigating whether body fat in later childhood and adulthood can be predicted somewhat by body fat at birth.

To read the complete article…..Click here

Obesity Can Begin At Age Nine Months

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From Youth Health Journal…..”I always enjoy stories from UPI, and I found this one very interesting. This article discusses how obesity can start in young children as early as nine months. The sad truth is now, there are many young children who are obese, and this is a strong predictor that they may lead a life of obesity as they grow older. Although these children are very young, and may find it difficult to get exercise at such a young age, many of them are consuming sugary drinks, especially at bedtime, which is contributing to their excess weight. By the time children start kindergarten, 6 percent are already severely obese and on the path to a lifetime of health issues from diabetes to heart disease. This article even went as far as stating that an obese mother during preganancy may have a child who could potentially have weight problems. So, what can we learn from this? We can teach our young children about healthy eating, physical activity, and healthy lifestyle at very young ages. Help them build positive habits at a young age that will contribute to a healthy body. If a parent is able to be a good ‘health’ role model, even better! Always remember, good habits can start at any age – – for anybody, both parent and child. All it takes is committment, determination, discipline, and pride. Also, good health happens in ‘baby steps’ and not overnight. Please visit the UPI site to read the complete article.”

From the article…..

A U.S. pediatrician said obesity can begin in infants, so parents should consider fitness a goal not only for themselves and other children, but baby as well.

Dr. Glenn Flores, a pediatrician at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, said surpassing the 85th percentile for Body Mass Index at 9 months of age is one of the most powerful predictors of severe obesity, which is defined as being above the 99th percentile of average Americans at any given age.

By the time children start kindergarten, 6 percent are already severely obese and on the path to a lifetime of health issues from diabetes to heart disease, Flores said.

“Multiple risk factors associated with obesity play a role, ranging from the sugary drinks children consume to their bedtime habits,” Flores said in a statement.

The risk for obesity can start even before birth. If the mother was severely obese just before her pregnancy, it’s likely her child also will face weight problems, while being Latino or multiracial is also associated with severe obesity among kindergartners, Flores said.

The first step to reducing the risk of obesity is screening for children who are at high risk. When children are 9 months old, children’s BMI and growth curve should be monitored, Flores advised.

To read the full article…..Click here

C-Section Babies More Likely To Become Overweight

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From Your Health Journal…..”I am always a fan of stories posted on Fox News. This article states that children born via cesarean section are slightly more likely than babies delivered vaginally to become heavy or obese. It is not so much the c section that puts on the weight, rather, the delivery of the baby. Past research has stated children who had C sections were more likely to have asthma, allergies, and diabetes. Experts are not 100 percent sure how c sections may cause this, but it may be related to bacteria when a child is delivered vaginally, or even that c sections babies are linked with a lower concentration in the umbilical cord of a hormone important in regulating weight and with a reduced rate of breastfeeding, both of which are reported to be associated with an increased risk of later obesity. I highly recommend reading this informative article.”

From the article…..

Children born via cesarean section are slightly more likely than babies delivered vaginally to become heavy or obese, according to a new review of studies.

The results don’t prove that c-sections cause kids to put on weight, but Dr. Jianmeng Liu, one of the authors of the study and a professor at Peking University Health Science Center in China, said the link between the delivery and obesity is important to keep in mind.

“The potential health burden of obesity and other diseases associated with c-section births should not be neglected, even if its impact is modest, particularly given” how often births happen that way, Liu told Reuters Health in an email.

Previous research has tied c-sections to a variety of untoward health outcomes in children, including asthma, allergies and diabetes.

Liu said that the relationship between the type of delivery and obesity among kids hasn’t been as clear.

The research team collected the results from nine studies that included more than 200,000 people.

People were 33 percent more likely to be overweight or obese if they were born by c-section, researchers report in the International Journal of Obesity.

Nearly 70 percent of adults in the U.S. are overweight or obese. A 33 percent increase from that number would mean that 93 percent would be heavy.

To read the full story…..Click here